The functionality of prebiotics as immunostimulant: Evidences from trials on terrestrial and aquatic animals

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The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments. This review covers the most newly deep-rooted scientific outcomes about the direct and indirect mechanism through which these dietetic strategies can affect intestinal immunity of terrestrial and aquatic animals. Prebiotics exert an influence on gut immune system via the increase in lysozyme and phagocytic activity, macrophage activation and stimulation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Furthermore, these functional molecules also enhance epithelial barrier function, beneficial gut microbial population, and production of intermediate metabolites for example short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that assist in balancing the immune system. Moreover, emphasis will be sited on the relationship among food/feed, the microbiota, and the gut immune system. In conclusion, further studies are nonetheless essential to confirm the direct effect of prebiotics on immune response.

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