The genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) is cultured widely for production of freshwater fish in China, while streptococcosis, likely related to pathogenic infections, occurs frequently in juvenile, mother, and operated GIFT. The gut microbiota plays an important role in nutrient digestibility in animals, and resveratrol (RES) has been used in feed for different freshwater fish species. Therefore, understanding changes in the tilapia gut microbiota across different concentrations of dietary RES supplementation is extremely important. The gut microbiota population in tilapia at 45 d after supplementation with different concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 g/kg) of dietary RES was assessed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. A total of 5445 operational taxonomic units were identified from all samples, and 14 phyla and 81 families were identified from all fecal samples. The bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes were significantly enriched in the 0.025 g/kg RES group when compared with the controls. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were the most dominant three phyla in all samples. With the increasing concentrations, the proportion of beneficial microbial taxa (Acetobacteraceae and Methylobacteriaceae) increased, whereas the proportion of harmful microbial taxa decreased, eg. Streptococcaceae except for 0.1 g/kg RES groups. RES did not affect the richness and diversity in tilapia gut microbiota. These findings provide information on the diversity and differences in GIFT gut microbiota database, and may contribute to developing strategies for management of diseases and long-term sustainability of O. niloticus culture.