Immune-related gene expression and physiological responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after intraperitoneal administration ofRhodomyrtus tomentosaleaf extract: A potent phytoimmunostimulant

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The immunostimulatory effects of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract were evaluated in rainbow trout through changes in expression profile of genes involved in innate immune and antioxidant response, hematology and stress indicators. The concentrations of R. tomentosa at 10 and 100 μg per fish were administrated by intraperitoneal injection, alone or in combination with LPS. After 6 h of administration, the gene expression was measured in head kidney, spleen, and intestine. Results indicated that R. tomentosa exerted immunostimulatory effects by inducing the expression of il10, saa, hepcidin, and sod in head kidney and the expression of il10, tgfβ, and inos in intestine. In combination with LPS, the plant suppressed the expression of pro-inflammtory cytokine il1β, il8 and other consisting of saa and gpx1 in head kidney and il1β in spleen, pointing out its anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, the plant did not exert any impact on hematological parameters, but it was able to reduce cortisol levels when co-administered with LPS, indicating that R. tomentosa could attenuate stress response in rainbow trout. Our observations suggest that R. tomentosa induced the expression of genes involved in cytokine and innate immune response and modulated the physiological stress response as indicated by the suppressed cortisol in rainbow trout.

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