To study the effects of probiotic-added food on the survival and growth of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), the expression levels of nonspecific immune genes and the anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection were examined. During an 8-week culturing experiment in an indoor aquarium and a 2-week V. parahaemolyticus artificial infection experiment, the control group was fed with untreated food once a day, while the experimental groups (L1, L2 and L3) were fed with Lactobacillus pentosus added food. The concentration of probiotics in the experimental food was 103cfu/g (L1), 105cfu/g (L2) and 107cfu/g (L3), respectively. The results showed that the survival rate, shell length-specific growth rate, and the food conversion rate (FCR) of abalones in L1 and L2 were significantly higher than the control group. The food intake of abalones in L3 was significantly lower than that in L1, L2 and the control group, but there was no significant difference in FCR identified between L1, L2 and L3. In the L. pentosus-added groups, the total number of blood lymphocytes, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, and expression levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) were significantly higher than the control group, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower than the control group. The phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes, catalase activity and the expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of abalones in the control group were significantly lower than that in L1 and L2, but there was no significant difference when compared with L3. The levels of O2−, NO produced by respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes and the expression levels of catalase (CAT) in L1 and L2 were significantly higher than both L3 and the control group. Seven days after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, all abalones in the control group were dead. After 14 days the cumulative mortality rate of abalones in the L. pentosus-added groups was significantly lower than that in the control group. Therefore, the 103cfu/g and 105cfu/g L. pentosus-added food not only promoted food intake and growth of abalones, but also improved their non-specific immunity and reduced V. parahaemolyticus infection, indicating that this strain is a good potential candidate for probiotic added food in the aquaculture industry.