Probiotic potential ofBacillus velezensisJW: Antimicrobial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria and immune enhancement effects onCarassius auratus

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This study evaluated the probiotic potential of B. velezensis JW through experimental and genomic analysis approaches. Strain JW showed antimicrobial activity against a broad range of fish pathogenic bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Vibrio Parahemolyticus. Fish (Carassius auratus) were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 107, and 109cfu/g of B. velezensis JW for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that JW supplemented diets significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. The mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of C. auratus was measured. Among them, the interferon gamma gene (IFN- γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed higher expression after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding (P<0.05). The expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) only being significantly upregulated by 109cfu/g of JW after 1 week of feeding (P<0.05). The upregulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) increased over time from 1st to 4th week. The expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) showed an opposite expression pattern with IL-10 significantly upregulated and IL-12 significantly downregulated by JW containing diets at 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding (P<0.05). Moreover, fish fed with JW supplemented diets showed significantly improved survival rate after A. hydrophila infection. The analysis of the genome of JW revealed several features aiding host health and being relevant to the GIT adaptation. Four bacteriocins, three Polyketide Synthetase (PKS), and five Nonribosomal Peptide-Synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters were identified in the genome. In summary, the above results clearly proved that B. velezensis JW has the potential to be developed as a probiotic agent in aquaculture.HIGHLIGHTSBacillus velezensis JW has a broad antimicrobial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria.Dietary administration of Bacillus velezensis JW induces immune response in fish.Dietary administration of Bacillus velezensis JW enhances disease resistance against A. hydrophila.Genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis JW revealed a large number of gene clusters involved in antimicrobial synthesis.

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