Effects of dietary glucose and starch levels on the growth, apparent digestibility, and skin-associated mucosal non-specific immune parameters in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)


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Abstract

A 10-week feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates in growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients and skin-associated mucosal non-specific immune parameters in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish were randomly fed four diets containing two carbohydrates (glucose and starch) diets and two carbohydrates levels (330 and 440gkg−1). High carbohydrate levels remarkably increased the weight gain rate (WGR), apparent digestibility of dry matters, protein and carbohydrates, body crud protein content, plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), and skin-associated mucosal levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM), HDL cholesterol, lysozyme (LZM), advanced the transcriptions of mucin 2 (Muc2), mucin 5b (Muc5b) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma levels of IgM, skin-associated mucosal levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and β-Defensins, and the transcriptions of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). In addition, carbohydrate types of glucose remarkably increased the survival rate, apparent digestibility of dry matters, protein and carbohydartes, body crud ash, plasma levels of total protein (TP), globulin (GLB), immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 and complement C4 and the transcriptions of Muc5b. Whereas the carbohydrate types of starch remarkably increased viscerosomatic index (VSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), condition factor (CF), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), apparent digestibility of liquid, advanced the transcriptions of Muc2, apoA-I and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Significant interactions between different types and levels of dietary carbohydrates were also observed in WGR, apparent digestibility of dry matters, protein and liquid, body crud ash, plasma levels of TP, albumin (ALB) and AST, skin-associated mucosal levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and β-Defensins, and the transcriptions of Muc2 and Muc5b. Our results indicate that inclusion of high level of glucose in the diet of blunt snout bream could improve growth performance, nonspecific immunity, and increase the efficiency of protein, which is suggesting that high level of glucose could be used in feed production. However, the proportion of the specific formula of glucose using in feed needs further study.HIGHLIGHTSInteractive effects of dietary carbohydrate types and levels on growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients, whole-body composition were investigated for Megalobrama amblycephala.This is the first study to report the effects of dietary carbohydrate types and levels on skin-associated mucosal immunological indexes of Megalobrama amblycephala.This study results in the inclusion of 440gkg−1 glucose in the diet would be a better way for fish to improve its growth performance and nonspecific immunity.

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