Immunostimulation and trained immunity in marine fish larvae

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Abstract

Little is known about the strategies for immunization and immunostimulation in marine fish larvae; however, both strategies have the potential to improve survival during the first days of larval culture. The biological variety of marine fish larvae complicates the standardization of the application of these strategies, although the mechanisms of early development are similar in marine species of commercial importance and those with aquaculture potential. Immunostimulation experiments performed with fish larvae provide evidence that helps to further understand the mechanisms of trained immunity, which can be used to understand responses to immunostimulation treatments. Therefore, during the stages of marine fish larviculture, strategic planning is required for the standardization of immunostimulation methods. A standardized method could improve our understanding of the effects of immunostimulating agents on the maturation of immune systems in marine fish larvae; this information would enhance the ability to achieve early training of innate immunity and determine its potential to improve the survival of cultured larvae.

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