Effects of orange peels derived pectin on innate immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured under indoor biofloc system


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Abstract

The present study investigates the effects of orange peels derived pectin (OPDP) on skin mucus and serum immune parameters, disease resistance and growth performance of O. niloticus cultured under indoor biofloc system. Six hundred Nile tilapia (average weight 9.09 ± 0.05 g) were distributed into 15 fiber tanks (300 L per tank) assigned to five treatments repeated in triplicate. Fish were fed experimental diets contain different levels OPDP as follows: 0 (control in clear water), 0 (control in biofloc system), 5, 10, and 20 g kg−1 OPDP for 8 weeks. At weeks 4 and 8 post feeding, skin mucus lysozyme (SMLA), peroxidase activities (SMPA), serum lysozyme (SL), serum peroxidase (SP), alternative complement (ACH50), phagocytosis (PI), and respiratory burst activities (RB) as well specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG), final weight (FW), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Also, resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae was assessed after 8 weeks post-feeding. Nile tilapia fed OPDP supplemented diets had significantly higher SMLA and SMPA compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The maximum values were observed in tilapia fed 10 g kg−1 OPDP followed by 5 and 20 g kg−1 OPDP. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between these two supplemented diets and between the control groups (P > 0.05). Regarding the serum immunological parameters, dietary inclusion of 10 g kg−1 OPDP showed significant higher SL and PI than other supplemented groups and control groups (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in SL and PI of fish fed 5 and 20 g kg−1 OPDP (P > 0.05). Dietary administration of OPDP significantly increased SP and ACH50 compared to the controls (P < 0.05), regardless of inclusion level. Additionally, non-significant change was found in RB of OPDP fed fish when compared with the controls (P > 0.05). The challenge test revealed that relative percent of survival (RPS) in OPDP treatments were 45.45%, 81.82%, 50%, respectively. The highest RPS was noticed in fish fed 10 g kg−1 OPDP. Furthermore, dietary administration of OPDP significantly improved SGR, WG, FW, and FCR (P < 0.05). Overall, the present findings suggested that OPDP can be taken into account as functional feed additives for O. niloticus.HighlightsDiet of 10 g kg−1 OPDP significantly stimulated innate immune response of tilapia culture under in door biofloc system.Inclusion of 10 g kg−1 OPDP significantly increased survival rate of O. niloticus against S. agalactiae.Fish fed 10 g kg−1 OPDP significantly improved growth performance and feed conversion ratio.

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