Prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is an important immune response for arthropods. β-1, 3-glucanase related protein (previously named as lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) in crustaceans) is a typical pattern recognition receptor family involved in the proPO activation by recognizing the invading microbes. In this study, we pay special attention to a bacteria-induced β-1,3-glucanase related protein from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, an important aquaculture specie in China. This protein, designated PcBGRP, was found a typical member of crustacean BGRP family with the glucanase-related domain and the characteristic motifs. PcBGRP was expressed in hemcoyes and hepatopancreas, and its expression could be induced by the carbohydrate and bacteria stimulants. The induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1,3-glucan (βG) was more significant than by peptidoglycan (PG). The response of PcBGRP to the native Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was more obvious than to Gram-positive bacteria. Using RNA interference and recombinant protein, PcBGRP was found to protect crayfish from A. hydrophila infection revealed by the survival test and morphological analysis. A mechanism study found PcBGRP could bind LPS and βG in a dose-dependent manner, and the LPS recognizing ability determined the Gram-negative bacterium binding activity of PcBGRP. PcBGRP was found to enhance the PO activation both in vitro and in vivo, and the protective role was related to the PO activating ability of PcBGRP. This study emphasized the role of BGRP family in crustacean immune response, and provided new insight to the immunity of red swamp crayfish which suffered serious disease during the aquaculture in China.