Toll like receptor (TLR) 5 and 9 are important members of the TLR family that play key roles in innate immunity in all vertebrates. In this study, paTLR5 and paTLR9 were identified in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus), a marine teleost of great economic value. Open reading frames (ORFs) of paTLR5 and paTLR9 are 2646 and 3225 bp, encoding polypeptides of 881 and 1074 amino acids, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed several conserved characteristic features, including signal peptides, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, and a Toll/interleukin-I receptor (TIR) domain. Sequence, phylogenetic and synteny analysis revealed high sequence identity with counterparts in other teleosts, confirming their correct nomenclature and conservation during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the that both TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in all investigated tissues, most abundantly in liver, kidney, spleen, intestine and gill, but lower in muscle and skin. In vitro immunostimulation experiments revealed that Aeromonas hydrophila lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Vibrio anguillarum flagellin induced higher levels of paTLR9 and paTLR5 mRNA expression in isolated fish intestinal epithelial cells (FIECs) than Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (LTA), but all increased the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and induced cell apoptosis and necrosis. Together, these results indicate that paTLR5 and paTLR9 may function in the response to bacterial pathogens. Our findings enhance our understanding of the function of TLRs in the innate immune system of silver pomfret and other teleosts.