DietaryWithania somineferaroot confers protective and immunotherapeutic effects againstAeromonas hydrophilainfection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

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Abstract

In the present study, effect of dietary Withania sominefera (W. sominefera) root powder was evaluated to modulate immune and antioxidant response against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). W. sominefera root powder supplemented diets at two concentrations 2.5% (W 2.5%) and 5% (W 5%); fed for 6 weeks prior to the A. hydrophila challenge and continued the same respective diets during the post challenge period (2 weeks). Results showed that fish fed W. sominefera at 5% enhanced immune response in both pre and post-challenge period. NBT level exhibited only significant increase (P < 0.05) in the pre-challenge period compared to control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver and muscle revealed significant decrease in both Withania supplemented groups compared to the control in post challenge period. Antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase/CAT/, glutathione S-transferase/GST/, glutathione/GSH; and superoxide dismutase/SOD) were improved in liver and muscle in post challenge period. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level in muscle and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) showed a significant increase in both Withania supplemented groups compared to the control post challenge. Withania supplementation enhanced disease resistance against A. hydrophila and reduced mortalities (20%), especially at supplemented concentration of 5%. Our findings suggest that W. sominefera root powder may have protective and immunotherapeutic roles in Nile tilapia against A. hydrophila infection which may be useful in controlling important fish bacterial diseases.

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