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Recently, chitosan-based nanoparticles with mucoadhesive properties emerged as a strategy for mucosal drug release. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of mucoadhesive system chitosancoated PLGA nanoparticles (NPMA) with fish external mucus. NP suspensions with fluorescent probe were prepared and characterized by size, polydispersity, zeta potential and pH measures. In post-exposure fish were observed an increase in fluorescence imaging over time and it was significantly influenced by NPMA concentration. We also observed the main predominance the fluorescence in the spleen, followed by liver, gill and other tissues. The use of mucoadhesive nanocarriers becomes an alternative for administration of drugs and immunomodulators in immersion systems since the nanosystem can adhere to the mucosal surface of the fish with little residual effect in the water.Nanometric mucoadhesive system acts as a tool for fish immunological response.Chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles used for immunomodulation could be tracked in vivo.Fluorescent mucoadhesive nanoparticles are suitable for fish immunomodulation.