Full-length and a smaller globular fragment of adiponectin have opposite roles in regulating monocyte/macrophage functions in ayu,Plecoglossus altivelis

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Adiponectin (ADP), a regulator of the innate immune system, plays a role in the progression of inflammation and metabolic disorders in mammals. However, the role of ADP in fish is poorly understood. Here, we cloned the cDNA sequence of a ADP homolog (PaADP) gene from ayu. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that PaADP presented typical characteristics of ADPs. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaADP was most closely related to that of rainbow trout. In healthy ayu, the transcripts of PaADP were detected in most of the tested tissues and cells, with the highest level in the adipose tissue. Upon V. anguillarum infection, the mRNA expression of PaADP was significantly up-regulated in the tissues and cells except adipose tissue. Subsequently, the full-length mature PaADP (fPaADP) and the globular domain fragment (gPaADP) were prokaryotically expressed in bacteria and purified, and anti-PaADP antibodies were produced. Western blot analysis revealed that three fragments including fPaADP and gPaADP were existed in ayu serum. The recombinant fPaADP (rfPaADP) had an anti-inflammatory effect on ayu MO/MΦ by upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions, downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions, inhibiting the phagocytosis and subsequent bacterial killing. In contrast, the recombinant gPaADP (rgPaADP) presented a pro-inflammatory effect on ayu MO/MΦ by upregulating pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, downregulating anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions, enhancing the phagocytosis and subsequent bacterial killing. These results suggested that fPaADP and gPaADP have opposite roles in the regulation of MO/MΦ functions in ayu.HighlightsWe characterized an adiponectin (PaADP) gene from ayu.PaADP existed in ayu serum as multiple forms such as fPaADP and gPaADP.FPaADP had an anti-inflammatory effect on ayu MO/MΦ.GPaADP had an pro-inflammatory effect on ayu MO/MΦ.

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