Teleost-specific TLR25 identified fromSchizothorax prenantimay recognize bacterial/viral components and activate NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways

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TLR25 is a new member of TLR1 family that is only identified in teleosts, but its function in immune response is still unclear. In current study, the coding sequence (CDS) of TLR25 was cloned from Schizothorax prenanti (named spTLR25), and spTLR25 is 2454 bp in length and coding a protein of 817 aa. The spTLR25 contains a signal peptide, twenty leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a LRR C-terminal (LRRCT) motif, a transmembrane region and a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that spTLR25 has the closest relationship with Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio) TLR25-2. The 3D structure of spTLR25 exhibits 5 α-helices and 3 β-sheets in the TIR domain, and 8 α-helices and 6 β-sheets in the LRR domains. The spTLR25 is mainly expressed in immune-related tissues and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Furthermore, the expression levels of spTLR25 were upregulated in spleen, head kidney and liver while S. prenanti was challenged with LPS or Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah), and the upregulation was also detected in head kidney leukocytes (HKL) after LPS and Poly (I:C) stimulation. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways can be activated by spTLR25, and this process may involve in the cascade amplification of TLR25-MyD88 signaling. In addition, the co-localization analysis showed that spTLR25 localizes to intracellular region. Taken together, our results reveal that teleost-specific TLR25 may be a multifunctional receptor for recognizing both LPS and Poly (I:C) and may activate NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways.HighlightsSpTLR25 belongs to TLR25 subfamily and presents similar structure to other teleost TLR25.The expression levels of spTLR25 were up-regulated after challenge with LPS, Poly (I:C) or Ah.SpTLR25 may activate both NF-κB and type I IFN signaling pathways.SpTLR25 may recruit downstream adaptor MyD88 to activate NF-κB signaling pathway.

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