In the past decades, global freshwater fish production has been rapidly growing, while cyprinid takes the largest portion. Along with the rapid rise of novel forms of intensive aquaculture, increased global aquatic animal movement and various anthropogenic stress to aquatic ecosystems during the past century, freshwater fish farming industry encounter the emergence and breakout of many diseases, especially viral diseases. Because of the ability to safely and effectively prevent aquaculture diseases, vaccines have become the mainstream technology for prevention and control of aquatic diseases in the world. In this review, authors summarized six major cyprinid viral diseases, including koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), spring viraemia of carp (SVC), grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD), koi sleepy disease (KSD), carp pox disease (CPD) and herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HPHN). The present review described the characteristics of these diseases from epidemiology, pathology, etiology and diagnostics. Furthermore, the development of specific vaccines respective to these diseases is stated according to preparation methods and immunization approaches. It is hoped that the review could contribute to aquaculture in prevention and controlling of cyprinid viral diseases, and serve the healthy and sustainable development of aquaculture industry.