Effects of aminomethylphosphonic acid, the main breakdown product of glyphosate, on cellular and biochemical parameters of the musselMytilus galloprovincialis

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Abstract

The effects of the breakdown products of herbicides on aquatic species are largely unknown. In a recent study, we evaluated the effects of glyphosate on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study was designed to evaluate for the first time the impact of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) - the main breakdown product of glyphosate - on cellular and biochemical parameters of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalves were exposed for 7, 14 and 21 days to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L of AMPA and various biomarkers were measured in haemolymph (total haemocyte counts, haemocyte diameter and volume, haemolymph pH, haemocyte proliferation, haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity, haemocyte lysate lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities), as well as in gills and digestive gland (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities). AMPA concentrations in seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured in order to correlate the biomarker responses of mussels with their exposure to the actual concentrations of AMPA. The MANOVA analysis demonstrated that the experimental variables considered (exposure dose, exposure duration, and their interaction) affected significantly biomarker responses. Nevertheless, the two-way ANOVA analysis revealed significant effects of AMPA on most of the biomarkers measured. The overall results of this study demonstrated that AMPA can affect cellular and biochemical parameters in mussels, similarly to glyphosate.

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