Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the most prevalent cause of cancer mortality in China. The Miles operation and permanent colostomy are effective treatment. However, these affect the quality of life of patients as they alter normal defecation. Self-efficacy is used to define an individuals' assessments of their ability to perform a specific behavior successfully. It is regarded as an important belief that can predict health behaviors. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a self-efficacy intervention on the quality of life of patients with a permanent colostomy. Forty-eight patients in treatment for permanent colostomy surgery were divided into the control and intervention groups. The control group received routine nursing; the intervention group was exposed to a 3-month self-efficacy intervention, as well as routine nursing. The two groups completed the Chinese version of a self-efficacy questionnaire at 10 days, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Three months after surgery, the two groups also completed a quality-of-life questionnaire. There were significant differences in the quality of life between the two groups. The self-efficacy intervention nursing method improved self-efficacy and the quality of life of patients with intestinal stoma and is worthy of clinical utilization and application.