Treatment of Loose to Medium Dense Sands by Granular Piles: Improved SPT ‘N1’ Values

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Abstract

The effect of granular pile installation on the modifications induced in loose to medium dense granular deposits is studied. SPT is the most often used to evaluate the in situ soil properties. Expressions for modified SPT N1 values for different soils, i.e., for different initial SPT N1 values, were determined as functions of replacement ratio from the available field data. Improvements in the ground are presented in the form of modified or improved SPT N1 values versus replacement ratio charts, which can then be used to design the required degree of treatment for the expected improvement or to estimate the improved values of treated ground for different initial states of sands.

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