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The present study sought to investigate the relationship between asymptomatic leukocyturia (ASL) and autonomic nervous function by power spectral analysis of the R-R intervals in women.One hundred and forty-two female outpatients aged 23-91 years were studied. We regarded ASL to be present if two consecutive samples were found to have 10 or more leukocytes/high-power field at ×400 magnification in a centrifuged midstream urine sample. The R-R intervals of all subjects were measured by the wavelet transform analysis system. This system detected R-R variation data distributed in two bands: low-frequency power (LF) (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF) (0.15-0.40 Hz). The ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) was also determined. Post-void residual urine volume was measured using an automated, compact 3-D ultrasound device.The patients with ASL had diabetes mellitus more frequently than those without ASL. Residual urine volume was significantly higher in the former than in the latter, while the HF values in both a recumbent position and a standing position were significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in LF or LF/HF values in either a recumbent or a standing position between the two groups. The HF values in both a recumbent position and in a standing position were independent indicators of ASL, even after adjustment for age, diabetes mellitus and residual urine volume.The present study reveals the relationship between ASL and impairment of the parasympathetic nervous system in women.