The criteria that distinguish human genetic research from clinical molecular diagnosis are frequently practical rather than theoretical. They are driven by the availability and costs of the relevant technologies and the systemic level of scientific fluency in interpreting laboratory results. The guiding principle in the practice of medicine is the primacy of patient care. In the service of this overarching goal the defining characteristic of clinical diagnosis is the definition of the disease entity, even when no immediate treatment is possible. For heritable disorders caused by single-gene defects, identifying the putative causal variant is the goal of molecular diagnostics. Current technologies, costs, and standards of institutional infrastructure have not typically permitted novel gene discovery to be performed within the realm of the clinical laboratory. Discovery is usually funded by self-defined research organizations and carried out by self-defined research personnel with the primary intent of publishing findings in research journals. However, exponential improvements in technological capabilities and the concurrent decline in associated costs seem poised to recast this landscape, bringing to clinical medicine some activities now considered research. Even whole genome resequencing of individual patient DNA is within clinical reach in the foreseeable future.