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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic form of left ventricular hypertrophy, primarily caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins. The cardiac remodeling that occurs as the disease develops can mask the pathogenic impact of the mutation. Here, to discriminate between mutation-induced and disease-related changes in myofilament function, we investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying HCM in a patient carrying a homozygous mutation (K280N) in the cardiac troponin T gene (TNNT2), which results in 100% mutant cardiac troponin T. We examine sarcomere mechanics and energetics in K280N-isolated myofibrils and demembranated muscle strips, before and after replacement of the endogenous troponin. We also compare these data to those of control preparations from donor hearts, aortic stenosis patients (LVHao), and HCM patients negative for sarcomeric protein mutations (HCMsmn). The rate constant of tension generation following maximal Ca2+ activation (kACT) and the rate constant of isometric relaxation (slowkREL) are markedly faster in K280N myofibrils than in all control groups. Simultaneous measurements of maximal isometric ATPase activity and Ca2+-activated tension in demembranated muscle strips also demonstrate that the energy cost of tension generation is higher in the K280N than in all controls. Replacement of mutant protein by exchange with wild-type troponin in the K280N preparations reduceskACT, slowkREL, and tension cost close to control values. In donor myofibrils and HCMsmn demembranated strips, replacement of endogenous troponin with troponin containing the K280N mutant increaseskACT, slowkREL, and tension cost. The K280NTNNT2mutation directly alters the apparent cross-bridge kinetics and impairs sarcomere energetics. This result supports the hypothesis that inefficient ATP utilization by myofilaments plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins, but the pathogenic mechanism is unclear. Piroddi et al. find impairment of cross-bridge kinetics and energetics in human sarcomeres with a TNNT2 mutation, suggesting that HCM involves inefficient ATP utilization.