Phylogenomics of several deer species revealed by comparative chromosome painting with Chinese muntjac paints

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A set of Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) chromosome-specific paints has been hybridized onto the metaphases of sika deer (Cervus nippon, CNI, 2n = 66), red deer (Cervus elaphus, CEL, 2n = 62) and tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, ECE, 2n = 47). Thirty-three homologous autosomal segments were detected in genomes of sika deer and red deer, while 31 autosomal homologous segments were delineated in genome of tufted deer. The Chinese muntjac chromosome X probe painted to the whole X chromosome, and the chromosome Y probe gave signals on the Y chromosome as well as distal region of the X chromosome of each species. Our results confirmed that exclusive Robertsonian translocations have contributed to the karyotypic evolution of sika deer and red deer. In addition to Robertsonian translocation, tandem fusions have played a more important role in the karyotypic evolution of tufted deer. Different types of chromosomal rearrangements have led to great differences in the genome organization between cervinae and muntiacinae species. Our analysis testified that six chromosomal fissions in the proposed 2n = 58 ancestral pecoran karyotype led to the formation of 2n = 70 ancestral cervid karyotype and the deer karyotypes is more derived compare with those of bovid species. Combining previous cytogenetic and molecular systematic studies, we analyzed the genome phylogeny for 11 cervid species.

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