The compositions of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits from three species of Taenitherum Nevski (TaTa, 2n = 2x = 14), Ta. caput-medusae, Ta. crinitum and Ta. asperum, were investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis. The electrophoresis mobility of the x-type HMW glutenin subunits were slower or equal to that of wheat HMW glutenin subunit Dx2, and the electrophoresis mobility of the y-type subunits were faster than that of wheat HMW glutenin subunit Dy12. Two HMW glutenin genes, designated as Tax and Tay, were isolated from Ta. crinitum, and their complete nucleotide coding sequences were determined. Sequencing and multiple sequences alignment suggested that the HMW glutenin subunits derived from Ta. crinitum had the similar structures to the HMW glutenin subunits from wheat and related species with a signal peptide, and N- and C-conservative domains flanking by a repetitive domain consisted of the repeated short peptide motifs. However, the encoding sequences of Tax and Tay had some novel modification compared with the HMW glutenin genes reported so far: (1) A short peptide with the consensus sequences of KGGSFYP, which was observed in the N-terminal of all known HMW glutenin genes, was absent in Tax; (2) There is a specified short peptide tandem of tripeptide, hexapeptide and nonapeptide and three tandem of tripeptide in the repetitive domain of Tax; (3) The amino acid residues number is 105 (an extra Q presented) but not 104 in the N-terminal of Tay, which was similar to most of y-type HMW glutenin genes from Elytrigia elongata and Crithopsis delileana. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tax subunit was mostly related to Ax1, Cx, Ux and Dx5, and Tay was more related to Ay, Cy and Ry.