Pseudis paradoxa paradoxa, P. p. platensis, P. bolbodactyla, P. fusca and P. tocantins were analyzed cytogenetically by conventional chromosomal staining, C-banding, silver staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe. Pseudis tocantins chromosomes were also stained with distamycin A/DAPI. All of the species had a diploid number of 2n = 24 chromosomes and the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was located on pair 7. However, the karyotypes could be differentiated based on the morphology of chromosomal pairs 2 and 8, the region that the NORs occupied on the long arms of the homologous of pair 7, and the pattern of heterochromatin distribution. The subspecies P. p. paradoxa and P. p.platensis had identical karyotypes. Heteromorphism in NOR size was seen in P. p. paradoxa, P. p. platensis, P. bolbodactyla and P. fusca. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) were identified in P. tocantins. The W chromosome was subtelocentric and larger than the metacentric Z chromosomes. The differences observed in the C-banding pattern and in the position of the NOR on the sex chromosomes suggested that inversions and heterochromatinization were responsible for the morphological differentiation of these chromosomes.