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Seed storage protein profiles were studied to evaluate the genetic diversity of a germplasm collection of the Caulorrhizae section of genus Arachis. Total seed storage protein of 28 accessions of Arachis pintoi and one of A. repens, collected in the Paranã, São Francisco and Jequitinhonha river basins, was compared by native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Significant variation was detected among the protein profiles of different accessions of Arachis pintoi, and three major protein profiles A, B, C were revealed in native-PAGE. Protein variation was much higher between accessions than within accessions. Nevertheless an exceptional case of intra-accession variation was observed in accession W 34b. In SDS-PAGE major variation between the accessions was confined to the region of arachin (basic group), which corresponds to region III in native-PAGE. There was no correlation between seed protein profiles and geographic distribution. However, protein polymorphism is predominantly in accessions of the São Francisco (A, B and C phenotypes) and Paranã (A and B phenotypes) basins, with the B phenotype predominating in the São Francisco basin. A specific protein profile to differentiate between the typical forms of A. pintoi and A. repens was not found.