Genetic diversity in Ethiopian hexaploid and tetraploid wheat germplasm assessed by microsatellite markers

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The genetic diversity of a subset of the Ethiopian genebank collection maintained at the IPK Gatersleben was investigated applying 22 wheat microsatellites (WMS). The material consisted of 135 accessions belonging to the species T. aestivum L. (69 accessions), T. aethiopicum Jacubz. (54 accessions) and T. durum Desf. (12 accessions), obtained from different collection missions. In total 286 alleles were detected, ranging from 4 to 26 per WMS. For the three species T. aestivum, T. aethiopicum and T. durum on average 9.9, 7.9 and 7.9 alleles per locus, respectively, were observed. The average PIC values per locus were highly comparable for the three species analysed. Considering the genomes it was shown that the largest numbers of alleles per locus occurred in the B genome (18.4 alleles per locus) compared to A (10.1 alleles per locus) and D (8.2 alleles per locus) genomes. Genetic dissimilarity values between accessions were used to produce a dendrogram. All accessions could be distinguished, clustering in two large groups. Whereas T. aestivum formed a separate cluster, no clear discrimination between the two tetraploid species T. durum and T. aethiopicum was observed.

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