Fluid injection monitoring using electrical resistivity tomography — five years ofSymbolinjection at Ketzin, Germany

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Between the years 2008 and 2013, approximately 67 kilotons of CO2 have been injected at the Ketzin site, Germany. As part of the geophysical monitoring programme, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography has been applied using crosshole and surface-downhole measurements of electrical resistivity tomography. The data collection of electrical resistivity tomography is partly based on electrodes that are permanently installed in three wells at the site (one injection well and two observation wells). Both types of ERT measurements consistently show the build-up of a CO2-related resistivity signature near the injection point. Based on the imaged resistivity changes and a petrophysical model, CO2 saturation levels are estimated. These CO2 saturations are interpreted in conjunction with CO2 saturations inferred from neutron-gamma loggings. Apart from the CO2–brine substitution response in the observed resistivity changes, significant imprints from the dynamic behaviour of the CO2 in the reservoir are observed.

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