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Among older adults who received rehabilitation, 1 in 25 were deceased at the one-year follow-up.Mortality was more common for nursing home or inpatient and in-home rehab settings.Patient-reported lack of improvement during rehab was associated with mortality.Heart disease, male sex, living alone, and ADL impairment increased mortality risk.This study aims to investigate the association of patient-reported improvement and rehabilitation characteristics with mortality among older adults who received rehabilitation. To do so, a national sample of Medicare beneficiaries from the National Health and Aging Trends Study was examined. Among those who reported receiving rehabilitation services in the 2015 interview (N = 1,188), 4.2% were deceased at the 2016 follow-up interview. Mortality was more common among those who had received rehabilitation in nursing home or inpatient and in-home settings compared to outpatient rehabilitation settings. In multivariable analyses accounting for demographics and health status, patient-reported worsening of functioning during rehabilitation (OR=15.69; 95% CI: 1.84–133.45) and cardiovascular disease (OR=4.15; 95% CI: 1.41–12.17) were associated with mortality. Among older adults who received rehabilitation, 1 in 25 were deceased at follow-up. That patient-reported functioning is associated with mortality suggests that more systematically including patient-reported outcomes in rehabilitation care may be clinically pertinent.