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Risk for falls presented independent association with frailty and pre-frailty.Family functionality presented independent association with frailty and pre-frailty.Quality of life had independent association with frailty and pre-frailty.Instrumental activities of daily living had an independent association with frailty.Frailty is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome associated with specific biopsychosocial factors in each population. This was a cross-sectional observational study designed to determine the biopsychosocial factors associated with frailty and pre-frailty in older adults in a community in Salvador, Brazil. The stages of frailty were collected in 413 older adults: 34.9% frail, 54.5% pre-frail, 10.6% robust. In the multinomial regression model, age (p = .018), functionality for instrumental activities of daily living (p = .026), risk for falls (p = .006), family functionality (p = .031) and the physical domain of quality of life (p = .004) had an independent association with frailty. Risk for falls (p = .004), family functionality (p = .004) and the environment domain of quality of life (p = .037) were independently associated with pre-frailty. The findings provide support to interventions in a way that contributes to prevention or reversal of frailty.