The self-regulation strategies of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) can be effective in optimizing aging with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Nineteen articles on the use and effects of SOC among older adults with chronic conditions were reviewed. The studies' quality, evaluated by the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, ranged from medium to high (Mean = 0.90, SD = 0.10). SOC were found to improve the symptom experience for older adults, resulting in better health outcomes such as increased daily living activities, subjective well-being, life success, fewer falls/sick days, and use of medication for pain control. For those with MCC, higher degree of disabilities, serious health events, and negative self-perceived aging undermined the relationships between SOC and long-term physical functioning, self-rated health, and life satisfaction. Aging can be optimized by identifying and improving older individuals' coping using SOC. Future studies should utilize better MCC measures for comorbidity and chronic disabling symptoms to investigate the influence of SOC on MCC-associated health outcomes.