Association between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease among older Nigerians in plateau state: a preliminary study

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Abstract

Objective:

To report the periodontal status of older adults in Plateau State, Nigeria, and determine its Association with alcohol consumption.

Background:

Periodontal disease is common among Nigerians, and the prevalence increases with age. The role that alcohol consumption plays in the occurrence of the disease among Africans is uncertain.

Materials and methods:

Sample selection was performed using a multistage cluster sampling technique among older adults in Plateau State, Nigeria. Interviews, using structured questionnaires, were conducted for each of the participants. Clinical examinations were then carried out to determine the occurrence of periodontal disease, assessed by clinical attachment loss and probing depth.

Results:

The prevalence of periodontal disease was 79%, being severe in 46% of the population. Almost half of the participants (46.7%) examined were still actively consuming alcohol, among which 48% reported a history of intoxication. There was no statistically significant relationship between periodontal disease and the frequency of alcohol consumption, or quantity consumed on each occasion. However, alcohol consumption was highly correlated with periodontal disease among those who reported intoxication from the drink (r = 0.095; p = 0.033). A history of intoxication with alcohol was the only significant predictor of periodontal disease, after adjusting for age and gender.

Conclusion:

Periodontal disease was highly prevalent among older Nigerians in this study. Apart from those who reported intoxication from alcohol, there was no statistically significant relationship between the prevalence of periodontal disease and the frequency of alcohol consumption or the quantity consumed on each occasion.

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