Prevalence and factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation among community-dwelling older people in Japan

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Objective:This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation among community-dwelling older people.Background:Xerostomia and hyposalivation are common symptoms in the older population.Materials and methods:This study included with 894 community-dwelling, Japanese older people (355 men, 539 women; age 65–84 years) who participated in a comprehensive geriatric health examination, which included questionnaires and interviews regarding medical history, medications, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC), depressive condition. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depression. Resting salivary flow rate was evaluated by the modified cotton roll method.Results:In this study, 34.8% of the participants (mean age, 73.5 ± 5.0 years) complained about xerostomia, while the prevalence of hyposalivation was 11.5%. Multiple regression analysis revealed hypnotics use [odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–2.61], SDS (OR = 1.05, CI = 1.04–1.07) and TMIG-IC total points (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.76–0.99) to be significantly associated with xerostomia. In contrast, female gender (OR = 2.59, CI = 1.55–4.31) and the use of agents affecting digestive organs (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.11–2.86) were associated with hyposalivation.Conclusion:Our findings showed that the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation were approximately 1 in 3 and 1 in 10 respectively. The factors associated with psychological factors and high-level functional competence, while hyposalivation was associated with medications and gender, as well as systemic and/or metabolic differences. It is important to consider these multidimensional factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation.

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