The State of Israel provides significant opportunities to study social processes that can enhance our understanding of the aging experience. It has high life expectancy and rapid growth of its older population. With an older cohort that is composed largely of former immigrants and includes a minority Arab population, Israel provides much diversity for gerontological study. Among the unique issues facing older Israelis are the aging of Holocaust survivors, modernization in the Arab sector, and privatization in the kibbutzim. New legislation related to pensions and universal health care is expected to affect aging processes. The development of “supportive communities” offers a new service model. The article notes 2 longitudinal studies of importance—the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe and the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study.