Genetic determinants of basal C-reactive protein expression in Filipino systemic lupus erythematosus families

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Basal C-reactive protein (CRP) is a heritable trait associated with long-term cardiovascular disease risk. Existing studies leave ambiguity over the key functional polymorphisms and fail to adjust for trans-acting effects. In a novel cohort of 285 Filipino systemic lupus erythematosus probands and their first-degree relatives, we quantified serum CRP and typed a dense map of CRP single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), along with SNPs in the interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and apolipoprotein E genes. Ten CRP SNPs demonstrated association with basal CRP in a regression model (P = 0.011-0.002). These delineated two haplotypes associated with high and low basal CRP expression (P = 0.002). Differences in allele frequency were seen compared with Caucasian populations, enabling us to argue for an independent genetic effect from a phylogenetically distinct haplotype tagged by SNP rs1800947. We demonstrated an association between Apo ε2 and higher basal CRP. Interleukin-6 genotype was associated with basal CRP, highlighting a role for acute-phase cytokines even in basal expression. Identifying these trans-acting variants may improve the use of basal CRP as a predictor cardiovascular risk, and increase our power to detect associations between CRP and disease.

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