Human host genetic factors have been suggested to be determinants of the prevalence and clinical forms of Chagas disease. In this regard, IL-17A is believed to control parasitemia and protect against heart disease. In this work, we assessed whether IL17A gene polymorphisms are related to infection and/or development of the cardiac form of Chagas disease by genotyping for five IL17A SNPs (rs4711998, rs8193036, rs3819024, rs2275913 and rs7747909) in 1171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n = 595), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 175) and chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (n = 401). Our results showed that SNP rs8193036, which is located upstream of the coding region of the gene, was slightly associated with protection against T. cruzi infection (P = 0.0170, PFDR = 0.0851, odds ratio (OR) = 0.80, confidence interval (CI) = 0.66–0.96) and associated with protection against the development of cardiomyopathy (P = 0.0065, PFDR = 0.0324, OR = 0.75, CI = 0.60–0.92). This finding suggests that this IL17A polymorphism could be associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the development of chronic cardiomyopathy due to differential expression of cytokine IL-17A.