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To estimate the prevalence of primary glaucoma in mainland China and to quantify its association with age, sex, and region.Population-based studies that reported the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or/and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) among adult populations in mainland China were identified through systematic searches. Fourteen articles providing 12 population-based studies were included. The overall pooled prevalence estimates were calculated using a random-effects model. A logistic metaregression was used to model the associations between the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval of primary glaucoma and age, sex, and region.The overall pooled prevalence of POAG was 0.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2), and PACG was found in 1.4% (1.0%, 1.7%). The OR per decade increase in age was 1.68 (1.12, 2.52) for POAG, and 2.11 (1.72, 2.60) for PACG. The OR of POAG prevalence was 0.65 (0.26, 1.62) between men and women. Chinese women were 1.75 (1.20, 2.56) times more likely than men to have PACG. The OR between western China and east China were 0.37 (0.10, 1.35) for POAG, and 1.06 (0.63, 1.76) for PACG. The OR between urban China and rural China were 3.92 (1.55, 9.92) for POAG, and 1.07 (0.55, 2.10) for PACG.The prevalence of PACG was approximately double that of POAG in adult Chinese. The rate of change of PACG prevalence with age increased more rapidly than that of POAG. The prevalence of POAG in urban was higher than that in rural. PACG was more common in women than in men.