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The vegetable cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata, is cultivated for its fresh pods and leaves in the derived savanna and forest belts of southeastern Nigeria. Nigerian material of this cowpea type with its diverse range of characteristics, is an important resource for improvement of cowpeas. The conservation and maintenance of this useful legume amidst the new varieties released yearly from research stations and seed companies have been accomplished through indigenous traditional methods. These methods have been discussed.