Eleven Chinese and twelve Swedish rapeseed (Brassica napus) genotypes were analysed by PCR with 41 microsatellite primers, generating a total of 50 loci. For these 50 loci, the number of alleles ranged from 1 to 14, and the average number of alleles per loci was 2.7. As an example of simple sequence repeat (SSR) scoring in Metaphor agarose gel, a single marker could distinguish 14 different DNA profiles. Based on cluster analysis (UPGMA), the dendrogram clearly distinguished three clusters, a cluster with exclusively Swedish genotypes, and two clusters with Chinese genotypes. The genetic diversity within the Chinese genotypes was broad compared to the genetic diversity within the Swedish material. The genetic similarity within the Swedish breeding lines ranged from 69.5 to 95.6%, while that of Chinese genotypes ranged from 57.1 to 81.6%. The results in this report will permit to establish a set of microsatellite primers that can be used for selecting appropriate parents for Brassica napus hybrids and for monitoring hybridity level.