Detection of DNA polymorphism in cultivated pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and two of its wild relatives Cajanus volubilis and Rhynchosia bracteata is reported here for the first time using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. For this purpose, two EcoRI (three selective nucleotides) and 14 MseI (three selective nucleotides) primers were used. The two wild species shared only 7.15% bands with the pigeonpea cultivars, whereas 86.71% common bands were seen among cultivars. Similarly, 62.08% bands were polymorphic between C. volubilis and pigeonpea cultivars in comparison to 63.33% polymorphic bands between R. bracteata and pigeonpea cultivars, and 13.28% polymorphic bands among pigeonpea cultivars. The cluster analysis revealed low polymorphism among pigeonpea cultivars and very high polymorphism between cultivated pigeonpea and its wild relatives. The AFLP analysis also indicated that only one primer combination (EcoRI + ACT and MseI + CTG), at the most any four primer pair combinations, are sufficient for obtaining reliable estimation of genetic diversity in closely related cultivars like pigeonpea material analyzed herein. AFLP analysis may prove to be a useful tool for molecular characterization of pigeonpea cultivars and its wild relatives and for possible use in genome mapping.