The endosperm storage protein of 46 European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces and obsolete cultivars have been fractionated by SDS-PAGE to determine the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition. It has been discovered that about 46% of the wheats were heterogeneous, comprising 2–11 different glutenin profiles. Eighteen of them were observed to be homogeneous. A total of 13 HMW-GS alleles, including 3 at the Glu-A1, 8 at the Glu-B1, and 3 at the Glu-D1 loci were revealed. HMW-GS null controlled by locus Glu-A1, subunits 7 + 8 by Glu-B1, and 2 + 12 by Glu-D1 predominated. However low frequented alleles such as 17 + 18, 20, 6, and 7 were observed. Furthermore, other new alleles encoding HMW-GS at the locus Glu-B1 have been found in one of France cultivar (Saumur d'Automne). The glutenin-based quality score ranged from 4 to 10.