We used AFLP analysis to explore the genetic relationship and diversity between and within 4 Mangifera species. We analyzed 35 accessions comprising 8 cultivars and 3 landraces of M. indica L., 11 landraces of M. odorata Griff., 7 landraces of M. foetida Lour., and 6 landraces of M. caesia Jack. Using 8 primer combinations produced a total of 518 bands, 499 (96.3%) of which were polymorphic among the 35 accessions. Clustering analysis showed that all 35 accessions were basically classified into 4 groups corresponding to the 4 Mangifera species. Our results indicate that the genetic relationship of these 4 Mangifera species based on AFLP analysis is in good agreement with their classification by classic methods. In addition, it was clearly revealed the genetic diversity between and within 4 Mangifera species. The findings obtained in this study are useful for the breeding in Mangifera species.