Ninety-five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from Spain were evaluated in three different environments in northern Spain for their agronomic performance and seed quality. Significant differences among landraces were found for 14 quantitative traits related to phenology, yield and its components, and seed quality traits. Environmental effects were significant for all traits evaluated except for seeds pod−1, seed width/thickness, seed weight, and seed water absorption. Landrace by environment interactions were significant for all traits except for seeds pod−1 and seed water absorption. Selection of new breeding lines for agronomic performance and seed quality within landraces should be reliable because many of them are mixture of lines. Some heirloom varieties belonging to the types ‘faba’, ‘caparrón’, ‘riñón’, ‘ganxet’ and tolosana had the best performances regarding to seed quality and yield. Principal component analysis revealed differences among environments affecting the performance of the bean landraces. Variation in the landraces seems to be organized in a different way in each one of the test environments, therefore, low plasticity and specific adaptation of Spanish bean landraces to different environments is derived from this study. Some landraces, especially those large and white seeded should be an useful resource for sustainable farming systems in different biogeographical areas and a worthy germplasm for the genetic improvement of agronomic value and seed quality.