Cyclin D1, an oncogenic G1 cyclin, and YB-1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth, are both over-expressed in several human cancers. In human lung cancer, the functional association between YB-1 and cyclin D1 has never been elucidated. In this study, we show YB-1 is involved in the transcription of cyclin D1 in human lung cancer. Depletion of endogenous YB-1 by siRNA inhibited progression of G1 phase and down-regulated both the protein and mRNA levels of cyclin D1 in human lung cancer cells. Forced over-expression of YB-1 with a cyclin D1 reporter plasmid increased luciferase activity, and ChIP assay results showed YB-1 bound to the cyclin D1 promoter. Moreover, the amount of YB-1 mRNA positively correlated with cyclin D1 mRNA levels in clinical non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis also indicated YB-1 expression correlated with cyclin D1 expression in NSCLC specimens. In addition, most of the cases expressing both cyclin D1 and CDC6, another molecule controlled by YB-1, had co-existing YB-1 over-expression. Together, our results suggest that aberrant expression of both cyclin D1 and CDC6 by YB-1 over-expression may collaboratively participate in lung carcinogenesis.