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Compare efficacy and safety of vonoprazan and lansoprazole for secondary prevention of low-dose aspirin (LDA)-associated peptic ulcers in a 24-week study and long-term extension therapy in separate study.Double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority study; single-blind extension study at 104 Japanese sites, including 621 patients (439 in extension) with a history of peptic ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy. Randomised (1:1:1, computer generated) patients received lansoprazole 15 mg (n=217), vonoprazan 10 mg (n=202) or vonoprazan 20 mg (n=202) once daily for 24 weeks (double blind) and ≤2 years (extension). The following measurements were made: 24-week (primary outcome; double blind) and 12-week peptic ulcer recurrence rate, 24-week GI bleeding rate, cumulative incidences of peptic ulcer recurrence and GI bleeding, treatment-emergent adverse events, laboratory results, serum gastrin and pepsinogen I/II concentrations.The 24-week peptic ulcer recurrence rate was 2.8%, 0.5% and 1.5% in the lansoprazole 15 mg, vonoprazan 10 mg and vonoprazan 20 mg groups, respectively. Vonoprazan was non-inferior (Farrington and Manning test: margin 8.7%, significance level 2.5%) to lansoprazole. In the post hoc analyses of the extension study, peptic ulcer recurrence rates were significantly lower with vonoprazan 10 mg (log-rank test, P=0.039), but not vonoprazan 20 mg (P=0.260), compared with lansoprazole 15 mg. GI bleeding rates were higher with lansoprazole compared with two doses of vonoprazan in both 24-week study and extension study.Vonoprazan (10 and 20 mg) was as effective as lansoprazole (15 mg) in preventing peptic ulcer recurrence during LDA therapy, had a similar long-term safety profile and was well tolerated.NCT01452763; NCT01456247.