Campylobacter jejuni is a highly prevalent yet fastidious bacterial pathogen that poses a significant health burden worldwide. Lacking many hallmark virulence factors, it is becoming increasingly clear that C. jejuni pathogenesis involves different strategies compared with other well-characterized enteric organisms. This includes the involvement of basic biological processes and cell envelope glycans in a number of aspects related to pathogenesis. The past few years have seen significant progress in the understanding of these pathways and how they relate to C. jejuni fundamental biology, stress survival, colonization, and virulence attributes. This review focuses on recent studies in three general areas where “pathogenesis” and “basic biology” overlap: physiology, stress responses and glycobiology.