Part III examines the evidence for the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) in neuropathologies other than Alzheimer's Dementia (AD), and for using an anti-TNF therapy, Etanercept (ENBREL), to target and treat these health problems, including chronic stroke, neuropathic pain or traumatic brain injury (TBI). All of these can become chronic illnesses and are of major incidence with a grossly unmet need to improve their treatment. The three-part review presents the overwhelming scientific and medical basis as to why research studies and more trials to evaluate the use of the perispinally administered anti-TNFα drug, Etanercept, are justified to allow it to become a front-line standard therapy. Part I established the role of TNFα as a direct regulator of neuronal synaptic activity. It is in this context, as detailed below, that targeting TNF in the brain holds major significance, not only for treating the dementias, but also its great benefits in reducing long term pain during rehabilitation from TBI or chronic stroke. Given the increasing numbers of families afflicted with Alzheimer's disease, chronic stroke, neuropathic pain or TBI, clinical studies are now imperative to improve the treatment of these life-threatening and debilitating illnesses.