Case fatality rates for South Asian and Caucasian patients show no difference 2.5 years after percutaneous coronary intervention

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Abstract

Objective

To compare short and medium-term prognosis in South Asian and Caucasian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to determine if there are ethnic differences in case death rates.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Setting

A cardiology referral centre in east London.

Patients

9771 patients who underwent PCI from October 2003 to December 2007 of whom 7966 (81.5%) were Caucasian and 1805 (18.5%) were South Asian.

Main outcome measures

In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE; death, myocardial infarction, stroke and target vessel revascularisation), subsequent revascularisation rates (PCI and coronary artery bypass grafting; CABG) and all-cause mortality during a median follow-up of 2.5 years (range 1.5–3.6 years).

Results

South Asian patients were younger than Caucasian patients (59.69±0.27 vs 64.69±0.13 years, p<0.0001), and more burdened by cardiovascular risk factors, particularly type II diabetes mellitus (45.9%±1.2% vs 15.7%±0.4%, p<0.0001). The in-hospital rates of MACE were similar for South Asians and Caucasians (3.5% vs 2.8%, p=0.40). South Asians had higher rates of clinically driven PCI for restenosis and subsequent CABG, although Kaplan–Meier estimates of all-cause mortality showed no significant differences; this was regardless of whether PCI was performed post-acute coronary syndrome or as an elective procedure. The adjusted hazard of death for South Asians compared with Caucasians was 1.00 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.23).

Conclusion

In this large PCI cohort, the in-hospital and longer-term mortality of South Asians appeared no worse than that of Caucasians. South Asians had higher rates of restenosis and CABG during follow-up. Data suggest that the excess coronary mortality for South Asians compared with Caucasians is not explained by differences in case-fatality rates.

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