Arterial stiffness is increased in families with premature coronary artery disease

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Abstract

Objective

A positive family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of traditional risk factors. Therefore, currently used risk algorithms poorly predict risk in these individuals. Novel methods are thus needed to assess cardiovascular risk. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) might be such a method, but it is unknown whether PWV is increased in first-degree relatives of patients with premature CAD.

Design

Observational case–control study.

Setting

Academic hospital.

Patients

Patients with premature CAD and a positive family history of premature CVD (n=50), their first-degree relatives without CVD (n=50) and unrelated controls (n=50).

Interventions

None.

Main Outcome Measures

PWV was measured with using an Arteriograph system. Differences in PWV were assessed by a generalised linear model and multinomial logistic regression.

Results

Patients with premature CAD had a higher PWV compared with first-degree relatives and controls (9.69±2.90 m/s vs 8.15±1.96 m/s and 7.38±1.08 m/s; p<0.05 patients vs all groups). Linear regression showed all groups related to PWV, with patients having the highest PWV and controls the lowest (p<0.0001). Furthermore, PWV was associated with first-degree relatives (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.72; p<0.05) and premature CAD (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.24; p<0.05) compared with controls. These findings were independent of blood pressure and other traditional risk factors.

Conclusions

Patients with premature CAD and their first-degree relatives had higher PWV compared with controls, independent of other risk factors. This holds promise for the future, in which arterial stiffness might play a role in risk prediction within families with premature CAD.

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