Perioperative outcomes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing non-cardiac surgery

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Abstract

Objective

Due to their unique pathophysiological profile, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) undergoing non-cardiac surgery require additional attention to perioperative management. We sought to compare perioperative outcomes of patients with HCM undergoing non-cardiac surgery with a matched group patients without HCM.

Methods

This observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care centre included patients with HCM (n=92, age 67 years, 54% men) undergoing intermediate-risk and high-risk non-cardiac surgeries between 1/2007 and 12/2013 (excluding <18 years, prior septal myectomy/alcohol ablation, low-risk surgery) who were 1:2 matched (based on age, gender, type and time of non-cardiac surgery) with patients without HCM (n=184, median age 65 years, 53% men). A composite endpoint (30-day postoperative death, myocardial infarction, stroke, in-hospital decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) and rehospitalisation within 30 days) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) were recorded.

Results

There was a significantly lower incidence of intraoperative hypotension/tachycardia in patients with HCM versus those without HCM (p<0.001). At 30 days postoperatively, 42 (15%) patients had composite events. Rates of 30-day death, MI or stroke were very low in patients with HCM (5%). However, a significantly higher proportion of patients with HCM met the composite endpoint versus patients without HCM (20 (22%) vs 22 (12%), p=0.03), driven by decompensated CHF. On logistic regression, HCM, high-risk non-cardiac surgery, high anaesthesia risk score and intraoperative duration of hypotension were independently associated with 30-day composite events (p<0.05).

Conclusions

Patients with HCM undergoing high-risk and intermediate-risk non-cardiac surgeries have a low perioperative event rate, at an experienced centre. However, they have a higher risk of composite events versus matched patients without HCM.

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