Multimodality imaging of the tricuspid valve with implication for percutaneous repair approaches

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Abstract

Nowadays some percutaneous options for tricuspid valve (TV) repair are available: Tricinch (4Tech Cardio, Galway, Ireland) mimicking the Kay procedure, Trialign (Mitralign, Boston, MA, USA) aiming to bicuspidise TV, MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) mimicking Alfieri’s stitch, direct transcatheter annuloplasty with Cardioband (Valtech Cardio, Or Yehuda, Israel) and transcatheter Forma Repair (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California, USA) providing a surface for leaflet coaptation. A multimodality imaging approach is fundamental for defining the pathophysiology of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), preprocedural planning and intraprocedural monitoring. Both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) are essential for grading and anatomical characterisation of TR, and evaluation of dimensions and function of right ventricle (RV) and estimation of pulmonary pressure. In particular, 3D echocardiography provides a better anatomical definition of TV apparatus and tricuspid annulus (TA) and additional information about the anatomical relationships of TV and surrounding structures. CT offers complementary information during the preprocedural planning especially for procedures targeting TA such as annular structure and dimensions, quality and amount of annular tissue and its relationship with the right coronary artery, and the sizing of the inferior vena cava. Moreover, appropriate patient selection is crucial. The best candidate seems to be a patient with functional TR due to predominant annular dilatation with modest apical tethering, at least partial preservation of leaflets coaptation, not severe pulmonary hypertension and not advanced RV dilation and dysfunction. An example of intraprocedural multimodality imaging approach with TOE, fluoroscopy, angiography and intracardiac echocardiography is also reported.

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